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A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

Do you grow your own garlic?  Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the simplest vegetables to grow and the best part is, you can plant your crop in the fall and literally forget about it until spring.

A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

Preparing to plant hardneck garlic cloves.

However, many people don’t grow garlic or think to add it to their gardening plans.  If you have grown it, you know that homegrown has a fresh flavour unlike anything sold at the grocery store. The cloves have a strong, pungent aroma and an almost translucent colour. 

Store-bought garlic is often sprayed to inhibit sprouting, thereby allowing for an extremely long shelf life.  Old garlic changes colour and texture as it ages. As the colour changes from translucent to white, flavour changes from pungent to dull.  Over 90% of garlic sold in stores is imported from China and only a small percentage is grown and shipped from California.  

Do you want to eat garlic that comes from the other side of the globe and was sprayed with unknown chemicals? Why buy store-bought, when you can easily grow enough garlic of your own and fill your coffers for the winter?

In this post, I will go over the simplicity of growing garlic, so you may consider adding it to your gardening plans.

Why Should You Grow Garlic?

Garlic is one of the easiest vegetables to grow and has a multitude of health benefits.  Plant it in the fall and it will reward you with multiple stage harvests throughout its life cycle.  Very few pests will attack your garlic plants and animal predators typically shy away from its pungent aroma.  

As it grows, it goes through many stages of development.  In the very early spring, tender green leaves may pop up before the snow melts.  These leaves are delicious and called young or green garlic. In late spring, a firm stem will emerge from the centre of the garlic plant, called a scape.  It is recommended to remove this scape, in order to redirect growing energy back to producing a larger garlic bulb.  Try this edible scape in stir-fry or pesto.  After removing the scape (see my video showing how I quickly and easily harvest garlic scapes), your garlic will continue to grow and split into a many clove garlic bulb. Once harvested and properly cured, these bulbs will reward you for many months in the winter.  With so many delicious uses, it’s hard to imagine a reason not to add garlic to your garden.

What is a Garlic Scape?

A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

Harvested garlic scapes.

A garlic scape is a firm stem that emerges from the centre of the garlic plant. 

This stem is tender at first and curls as it begins to grow.  Almost at the tip of the stem is a swollen area, which tapers to a tender long point. 

If the scape is left on the garlic plant, it will straighten out and harden and the swelling at the top will become a false-flower. 

This false-flower is unlike a typical flower. Rather than petals, the flower is filled with garlic bulbils, or tiny garlic cloves. 

These mini cloves may be planted, but it will take at least 2 years to grow a bulbil into a full size garlic bulb. 

A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

One year old garlic bulbils. Notice how they haven’t split and are a single round clove?

Therefore, it is important to remove the scape early on (after the first curl) in order to redirect growing energy back to the development of the garlic bulb. 

For more information on growing garlic from bulbils, check out my post “How to Increase your Garlic Supply by Planting Bulbils“.

How to Plant Garlic:

Garlic is divided into two categories, hardneck and softneck.  A tough central stem immediately identifies the garlic bulb as hardneck garlic.  The absence of a tough central stem concludes that the plant is a softneck garlic.  Hardneck garlic is better suited for colder and more severe winter conditions, while softneck garlic is better suited for a milder winter.  (For more information on the differences between hardneck and softneck garlic, see my post, How to Increase your Garlic Supply by Planting Bulbils“.

Hardneck garlic is best planted in early fall, before the first frost.  It requires at least 2 months of temperatures at 4 degrees celsius (40 degrees fahrenheit) to stimulate plants into bulb production.  Plant your garlic cloves at least 2 to 4 weeks before the ground freezes hard.  In my zone 5a garden, I plant out my garlic cloves around November 1st.  I tend to watch the weather closely at that time of year and select the first nice, dry day.  If November 1st looks to be a rainy day, I plant my cloves just before the 1st or immediately after, whichever day is best. If that first week doesn’t work out, then the following week is fine too.  Over the years, I have tried planting my garlic cloves from September to November and I have found that November 1st works best for me. This date is not a hard and fast rule, but the later you plant them, the less likely they will sprout and emerge from the soil before a hard winter.  Just be sure to give them a few weeks to establish roots.

Fall planted garlic is ready for harvest in early to mid-summer, depending on the year and weather conditions.  If you wait to plant your garlic in the spring, it will not have enough time to produce multi-cloved bulbs. The cloves will grow, but won’t split.

If you live where the winters are mild, consider planting softneck garlic. It can be planted as late as December or January.

Directions for Planting your Garlic Cloves:

Directions:

  • Before planting, prepare your garlic by separating the bulbs into individual cloves.  Try not to peel or damage the papery skin, but do remove any loose exterior skin and the hard central stem.
  • Draw out long rows in your planting bed with a rake or spade, approximately 8-inches apart. Then, use a long handled dibber to create planting holes.  Push the dibber into the soil up to a depth of 5 to 6 inches and 4-inches apart.  Plant your garlic bulbs pointy side up and flat side down.  Then cover the holes with soil and level out the surface of the bed with the back side of a rack.
  • A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

    This is another tool I use in making planting holes and drawing out rows in the soil.

    A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

    Drawing out rows.

    A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

    Planting holes made with long-handled dibber.

    A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

    Plant your garlic bulbs pointy side up.

  • Mulch your beds with straw, shredded leaves, grass clippings, burlap or row covers. If winter is warmer than normal, a mulch will prevent any early sprouted garlic from being damaged by a sudden freeze. In addition, a mulch will protect the soil from soil erosion due to weather conditions.
  • A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

    Garlic bed mulched with partially composted straw.

  • When the ground defrosts in the spring, green shoots will emerge from freshly thawing soil.  Push back the mulch in the spring, to allow for the soil to dry.

Harvesting Garlic:

A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

Freshly harvested garlic.

After removing the scapes, the garlic cloves will continue to develop until they attain their maximum size. 

Harvest your garlic when the plants begin to yellow from the top down.  This is usually 4 to 6 weeks after scape development.
 
To harvest your garlic, use a garden fork or spade to carefully lift the garlic out of the ground.  The ground may be firm, but you don’t want to damage your garlic.  Position your garden fork approximately 3 inches from the base of the garlic and push your fork into the ground, lifting it. 

If your garlic gets damaged it won’t store well.  Use these bulbs first and store the rest.

Curing Garlic for Storage:

After all your garlic is picked, carefully lay it out in a dry, shady and well-ventilated location for a minimum of 4 weeks. 

Don’t overlap or stack your garlic, because they need air circulation to dry completely.  If you store it before it is completely dry, it will contain moisture causing it to mold quickly.

A Complete Guide to Planting Garlic

Garlic bulb is ready for storage.

After all your garlic is cured and dry and the skins feel papery, cut the stems, leaving the bottom 2 inches intact and trim the roots.

Store your garlic in a cool, dry location, like a cold room, cool closet, or in an insulated and unheated garage. Use mesh or paper bags or mesh or wire baskets.  If properly cured, they will keep for most of the winter.

If you love garlic, I highly recommend growing it in your own garden.  It is one of the easiest vegetables to grow and once it’s planted, will reward you with continuous harvests throughout its life cycle.  If you’re short on space, pop a few cloves into your perennial borders. They will grow just about anywhere.  

Happy Gardening!

Julia 


Here are the tools that I mentioned in the post.

Disclaimer: The links to some of these tools are my affiliate links. Meaning, I will get a small commission at no extra cost to you, should you purchase the product through my affiliate link.
10 Proven Steps for a Successful Vegetable Garden

10 Proven Steps for a Successful Vegetable Garden

Having a vegetable garden that flourishes takes a big commitment. Learn how to create an enchanted kitchen garden oasis with these 10 proven steps.

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